The Terracotta Army, the First Emperor of Terracotta Warriors and Horses, is the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. The first batch of Chinese world heritage sites are located in the Terracotta Warriors and Horses, 1.5 km east of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum in Lintong District, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province.
Terracotta Warriors are a category of ancient tomb sculptures. In ancient times, human beings were practiced. The slaves were the attachments of the slave masters. After the slave owners died, the slaves were to be buried as slaves. The terracotta warriors and horses are made into funerary objects in the shape of soldiers and horses (chariots, horses, soldiers).
On March 4, 1961, the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang was announced by the State Council as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. In March 1974, Terracotta Warriors and Horses were discovered; in 1987, the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor and the Terracotta Warriors and Horses were approved by UNESCO to be included in the World Heritage List, and were hailed as the "eighth wonder of the world". There were more than 200 foreign heads of state. Visited by the head of government and became a golden business card of the ancient Chinese splendid civilization, known as one of the world's top ten ancient tomb treasures.
From 1974 to 1977, 1 km east of the Tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang, a terracotta warrior pit was discovered as one of the tombs of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum. The No. 1 pit is in the south, 216 meters long from east to west, 62 meters wide and 13260 square meters in area. The No. 2 pit is 124 meters long and 98 meters wide and has an area of 6,000 square meters. The No. 3 pit has an area of 520 square meters. A total of 800 warriors were unearthed, 18 wooden chariots and more than 100 horses. According to the existing arrangement of terracotta warriors and horses, there are 7,000 warriors in the three pits, 100 chariots and 100 horses. The pottery maid is tall, usually around 1.8 meters.
The Terracotta Army is distinguished by its identity. There are two main types of soldiers and military squads. The military squad has low-level, intermediate-level and high-level. The average soldier does not wear a crown, while the military officer wears a crown. The crown of the ordinary military officer is different from the crown of the general, and even the armor is different. Among them, the soldiers include infantry, cavalry, and chariots. According to actual needs, the warriors of different arms have different equipment.
The terracotta warriors and craftsmen are a group of potters at the lower level of the Qin Empire society. Some of these potters come from the court's pottery workshops, and some come from local pottery workshops. There are 80 pottery names found in Tao Xun, all of which are excellent potters with rich practical experience.
Most of the terracotta warriors are made by the method of smelting and firing. First, the first tire is made with the ceramic mold, and then covered with a layer of fine mud for processing and coloring. Some are burnt and then connected, and some are first burned. The fire is uniform, the color is simple, and the hardness is high. Each process has a different division of labor and a strict working system.
The original terracotta warriors and horses had bright and harmonious paintings. Some of the pottery figurines found in the excavation process still had vivid colors when they were unearthed. However, after being unearthed, they were oxidized by oxygen, and the color disappeared in less than ten seconds and turned into white ash. What you can see now is only the traces of the remaining paintings.
The shaping of terracotta warriors and horses is basically based on real life, and the techniques are delicate and bright. Each pottery's costumes and looks are different. There are many kinds of hair styles, and the gestures are different. The facial expressions are different. From their costumes, expressions and gestures, it can be judged whether they are officers or soldiers, whether they are infantry or cavalry. In general, all the Qin dynasty faces reveal the unique majesty and calmness of the Qin people, with distinct personality and strong characteristics of the times.
The Terracotta Army sculpture is a combination of painting and plastic. Although it has a long history, it has been faintly visible in the face and clothes. Emphasis on expressiveness in composition, ingenious composition, flexible techniques, both authenticity and decorative. Because of this, Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses have an important position in the history of Chinese sculpture. From the perspective of more than a thousand pottery figurines and pottery horses that have been sorted out, there is almost no similarity.
Address: Linyi District, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province
Transportation: From the east side of Xi'an Railway Station, take the 5 (306) Road tourist bus to reach the big bus, the fare is 7 yuan; the Big Wild Goose Pagoda and Datang Furong Garden take the 307 bus, the fare is 8 yuan.
Tickets: Qin Shihuang Mausoleum and Terracotta Warriors Pass 120.00 yuan (different seasons)